|Images From This Issue Are Here
From the AIF Diary
Plant Identification News – Two interesting rainforest plants
New AIF Service - Insect Valuations
- new species of Jewel Beetle, Stick Insect and Millipede
- DNA Barcoding Project on Phasmids
Bug Files - Insect Cyclone Recovery Timeline
Well here at the farm most of the past year has been spent
in recovery mode, re-building, re-planting, re-doing everything!
What the cyclone left as mounds of twisted steel intertwined
with forest debris has all been cleared and what remains now
are open clean areas just ready for us to start all over again.
Some more insect greenhouses will need to be built plus loads
of plants to replace. The forest still shows its wounds of
broken trees and lack of canopy cover. Fortunately after receiving
such a severe bashing there was more than ample follow-up
wet weather for many months. Having such rain definitely assisted
the forest recovery and of course the insect life which followed
has been most interesting. Below are some of the more interesting
diary entries from the months of June 2006 to July 2007.
From the AIF Diary
This has been a year of the most atrocious weather. Three
months after the cyclone and the rain continues, almost grounding
any attempt to do any repairs to a stop. I have stopped keeping
notes on daily rain, it is easier to take count of the 6 or
7 days of no rain. I was fortunate to see two cassowaries
today but unfortunately neither was on the property. Both
were running in a horribly startled fashion between banana
paddocks which lacked any fruit and the busy main highway.
Obviously these birds are looking for food as the cyclone
has seriously damaged the fruiting trees for these giant birds.
The local Innisfail newspaper reports such cassowary sightings
are becoming a daily occurrence. On the farm we suspect a
single bird is active around our home after spotting some
imprints left along the new track leading down to the creek
where the water pump is now installed.
Finally signed contracts with the builder for house repairs,
very pleased we had house insurance cover, wish we could get
insurance for all the rest of the farm repairs. On farm road
works now amount to $5,500.00. Still waiting for work to start
on the first greenhouse, hopefully that will be this month.
Of particular notice in the forest both here and all along
the coast are large stands of Backhousia (Myrtaceae: Backhousia
bancrofti) trees in bloom. Working outdoors, the sweet scent
of the Backhousia blossom constantly fills the air. Never
before have we seen so many in flower simultaneously, usually
their flowering is described at its best as sporadic. Good
numbers of day flying moths (Alcidis metataurus) are coming
in to feed on the Backhousia blossom. For the past two weeks,
extraordinary numbers of earwigs have been appearing nightly
at the insect light.
An astounding number of day flying moths (Alcidis metataurus)
fill the forest. Sure we have seen them here before but nothing
like the numbers flying now. The only comparison I can make
to the amount of day flying moths currently in the forest
is the congregating locations overseas for the Monarch butterfly.
Sounds fantastic but to look up into the nude forest and see
trees’ quivering with a covering of moths is more than amazing.
At least the number of moths flying makes up for the void
in bird activity. The forest is generally still quiet with
only the odd bird call to be heard. Of notice is the smaller
than usual sized specimens of Wood moths (family: Cossidae)
and Ghost moths (family: Hepialidae), obviously having been
forced into emergence from the loss of their host plants.
No rain for 3 weeks now, fantastic! It has taken 5 months
but things are starting to feel like they are on the move,
builder is finally available to start house repairs next week
and the welding on the first greenhouse has been done. Now
it sits like a skeleton in need of its skin, the cover is
currently being made in Cairns, estimated to be a couple of
weeks. Work is nearly complete on establishing the new water
pump systems to both houses. Finally, the plumber has completed
his cyclone repairs to both houses. Now all we need to keep
moving along is for the fine weather to stay for some time.
Still relatively small, but of considerable notice is the
first real chorus of bird songs starting to happen in the
mornings. The Backhousia’s still continue to flower and the
day moths still fly. Perhaps a little earlier than usual are
the Hercules moths (Coscinocera hercules) coming to
the night light, up to 4 per night and all males. Sitting
outdoors at night, large numbers of Mole crickets (Gryllotalpa
species) are attracted to the porch lights. Micro-fauna
continues to come in droves, with swarms flying around the
lights at night. Another insect out in large numbers are the
Jezebel butterflies, two species Delias arganthona and
September 30th and the builders have finally finished the
repairs to both houses, six weeks of shifting gear from one
room to another and some days one house to the other. Now
the builders are gone, we have started what we have so fondly
come to call ‘the great clean-up of 2006’. Starting with our
home there has not been a single spot or item not in need
of thorough cleaning. The amount of mould growth everywhere,
a result from water entering the houses is unbelievable. Once
our home was finished, we started all over again in the main
house, double punishment! Perhaps there would be some house
keepers who would relish the opportunity to have a totally
clean house, maybe so but believe me I don’t ever want to
go through all this again. Not one bit of fun at all!
Workshop is now operational once again, albeit with not much
stock but it is only a matter of time and this too will improve.
Luckily, Jack had the foresight before the cyclone hit to
gather all the eggs from the adult female stick insects. These
eggs are now emerging, so stock is starting to happen. Stick
insect food plants are starting to look good in the only greenhouse
which is finally now complete with its cover. Now because
the house had been open to the elements for so long, there
are a number of local insects which have become resident in
the plants. This includes the caterpillars of the Tailed Emperor
butterfly (Polyura sempronius) feeding on the Powder-Puff
(Caliandra sp.) bushes. But there are many other intruders
not welcomed, wasps, weevils, leafhoppers and moths mostly,
all of which will have to be eradicated. If left alone, the
moth larvae will eventually devour the food plants and of
course the wasps are definitely not welcomed. Jack continues
to work on establishing plants in the garden but some will
have to be propagated from seed while others will take along
time to replace. Then there are those plants originally collected
as seed from the Cape York and other areas some 20 years ago,
perhaps we will never replace such plants.
Currently, there are a number of government programs offering
aid for cyclone recovery. One program I have registered for
is ‘Operation Farm Clear’ which assists farmers in clearing
their property of debris and damaged infrastructure. Over
250 jobs have been logged on for this service so far, so there
is a period of waiting. The amount of mess covering the other
greenhouses is huge, definitely a job for heavy machinery.
Hardly a quiet moment between bird calls now, the forest
is starting to gain some real life to it again. That has been
the hardest to get over, the deathly silence that fell upon
the forest after the cyclone. One extra sighting of a single
cassowary brings the grand sighting total to two birds on
the property. Locally the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service
have established 58 cassowary feeding stations, using an astonishing
1000 kilos of fruit per week. A total of 21cassowary deaths
have been confirmed since the cyclone, the majority to dog
attacks and vehicle accidents. The forest is still deficient
in fruit feeders such as Wompoo Fruit Dove (Ptilinopus magnificus)
but seems to have returned to normal when it comes to the
activity of insect and seed feeding birds. One sound that
remains constant in the forest is the sound of trees snapping
and falling. Looking at our mountain range from outside the
property the forest appears green. But this green belt is
very low and sticking out from this is the remains of the
taller canopy forest level which now resembles sticks with
grey coloured tufts on top. The tops are just bare dead branches.
During the day we are constantly bombarded with micro-fauna,
mostly wood boring insects - Cerambycidae (Longicorn beetles)
and Curculonidae (Weevils), keeping samples for later ID.
Then at night we are bombarded again with insects that measure
no larger than 4 mm in size, moths, sucking bugs, earwigs,
leaf hoppers, weevils, and a multitude of wood boring beetles.
With 16 crews operating through the local area ‘Operation
Farm Clear’ has finally made it to our place. While they all
commented that our job was one of their lightest to tackle,
it still took two days with an excavator, taking a total of
18 truck loads of tangled greenhouses and forest debris away
for dumping. A regular and local publication the ‘Operation
Recovery Update Newsletter’ reports that the average Operation
Farm Clear job has cost around $4500.00. I am glad we could
get assistance from this program we still have the costs of
further heavy equipment needed to prepare the site for rebuilding
the greenhouses. Once where four greenhouses stood, now is
a large vacant area.
One noticeable absence in the forest is that of the Green
Tree Ants (Oecophylla smaragdinus). Nest numbers are
very few and any green ant activity is ground orientated.
No doubt some insects are finding food a little scarce, especially
for butterflies or any other nectar feeder, as there is still
a lack of flowering plants available. Just the other evening
while relaxing with a glass of red wine, a single fruit sucking
moth was attracted to the glass and proceeded to drink profusely.
Fruit is definitely lacking in the forest. What has become
really obvious is the increased amount of Orthoptera (grasshoppers
mostly) literally adorning the forest plants. With such low
foliage in the forest it is relatively easier to locate insects
rather than when they are up high in the canopy. At the moment
walking through the forest at night it is not uncommon to
see stick insects feeding on foliage lower than your knees.
The numbers of katydids and the diversity in species is way
above any normal activity for this time of year. A mountain
of new and lush foliage is literally available for every leaf
eating insect for miles, perhaps this summer will be the ‘season
of the Orthopterans’.
The end of November and we are once again officially in our
‘wet season’. In the last week a cyclone has been reported
forming out in the Pacific, hearing news like that also brings
some anxiety. Local newspapers report that there are approximately
200 or more houses still covered in tarpaulins and face the
wet season under such conditions. I feel we were certainly
fortunate to have had our house repairs completed.
Of interest has been the larger than ever numbers of Cane
beetles at the insect light. I wonder if there will be a cyclone
flow-on problem for the cane farmers following such an emergence
of large numbers. Longhorn beetles appear to be low this summer.
Stick insect breeding has hit an unexpected setback. Food
plants in the greenhouse have been heavily hit with infestations
of insects that remained on or in the plants within the house
when re-built. What was starting to look like healthy and
luscious plants are now showing signs of insect attack both
in the foliage and trunks. Insects infesting the greenhouse
plants include weevils, butterfly and moth larvae, wasps,
katydids, assassin bugs and various spider species. Many food
plants are dying and will now have to be removed and replaced.
This will definitely set-back the breeding of stick insects
for some months.
Insect activity has become unbearable at night when sitting
outdoors. While only micro size, the insects are in droves,
getting stuck in your hair, down your clothes, even entangled
in the hairs on Jacks legs! The nights remain quite humid
with the occasional shower of rain. No real wet season happening
Finally, numbers of breeding stocks are increasing in the
lab. All though, for some species it will be another year
before we will obtain breeding stocks.
The forest is starting to thicken out with foliage but the
canopy remains open and offers very little shade. I have taken
to using an umbrella when walking from house to house, the
only way to create some shade. Vine growth is becoming more
noticeable as they head up the bare tree trunks. A vine that
has remained almost missing until now has been the Wait-a-while,
but now it shoots everywhere. Relying on tall trees to grow
upon up to the canopy, many will collapse as there simply
are not enough tall tree trunks available. Unfortunately,
fallen wait-a-while plants only add to the impenetrable forest
that already exists. Seeing a few more snakes than usual,
Red-bellied blacks (Pseudechis prophyriacus), Slaty-greys
(Stegonotus cucullatus) and Scrub pythons (Morelia
emethistina), obviously taking advantage of the overload
of sunlight reaching the forest floor. Also taking advantage
of the open sunlit conditions are all the various grasses
and weeds, in quantities never before seen on the property.
No Cicadas! Normally, you can set your watch by the start
of the nightly cicada calls, 7 pm sharp! But there aren’t
any to be heard so far for this summer. Groups of up to 7
Crested Hawks (Aviceda subcristata – Pacific Baza)
continue to be regular visitors. Working in a group they are
so quiet as they move through the trees
We have received some good rainfalls for this month, in a
6 day period alone we received our monthly average rainfall
of 1300 mm. So far for this month rainfall figures are running
at over 1500 mm.
With one year passed since the cyclone we once again visited
the Feast of the Senses festival. There was an obvious lack
of fruit at this year’s celebration but most of that would
have been due to the massive loss of tropical fruit trees.
In following with the year passing of the cyclone, the Far
North Queensland Natural Resource Management held a ‘Disturbed
by Larry’ workshop. Topics were varied but cyclone related
such as general forest recovery, Cassowaries and native plant
propagation. I gave a short presentation which I based on
post cyclone insect activity as observed on our property.
Something we were happy to see recently was a small cassowary
dropping on the road near the main house. It was only a week
ago that Jack saw a young bird at the same location. A single
adult Cassowary also made a brief appearance up at home.
No sign of the young cassowary lately, however the adult
bird makes regular visits around both houses. It is sad to
watch such a large bird feeding on some of the rainforests’
smaller fruits such as wild raspberries and fallen mistletoes.
Of amazement is that they are eating green tree ants and the
jalapeño chillies from our vegetable garden.
Up till now we thought there was only one adult bird visiting
but with Jack taking photos of the Cassowary, we have actually
found out there are two adult birds visiting. As we started
to look closer at the images we realized there was substantial
difference in their horns structures.
What we thought were two cassowaries visiting has now grown
to three. Again, by taking photos of the birds has made it
possible to identify each bird. So now there are two females
and one male visiting regularly.
Late June and the male cassowary has stopped visiting. As
it is breeding season we hope the disappearance of the male
means he is sitting on a nest with eggs. Time will tell, hopefully
soon we will see him with some chicks.
When tropical cyclone Larry crossed our coast in 2006 it
left extensive damage to the forested areas of our local region.
It is well known that these areas support a large population
of the endangered southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius
johnsonii). As a result, food sources were dramatically
reduced for the existing birds. With the amount of damage
we received to the forest here at the farm, I have no doubt
that some birds would not have survived.
Even today, 16months later, walking through our forest is
an ordeal let alone for the cassowaries. They must still be
facing great difficulty in using anything of their regular
pathways through the forest. It was well over a year before
we saw any Cassowaries here, but once they did appear they
became daily visitors. At first there was a single female
bird, then a smaller bird, a male, started to appear. After
some weeks, a third bird identified as another female made
only a few visits. But it was the first female and the male
that made almost predictable visits around the houses. Watching
them walk on through, I always wondered what would happen
if two birds appeared at the same time. Well that very thing
happened much to our surprise and here’s the scenario:
“The two birds approach from different directions, not
seeing each other as the boat sits in the yard between them.
Jack’s up in the boat busy washing it down and not noticing
the birds approaching from either side. Catching a glimpse
of something from the corner of his eye, Jack stands up just
as the male spies the female. Within a second the male does
a u-turn, with head down and horn out vertical he shoots off!
With amazing leg stride he was gone in no more than a couple
A very brief encounter but there was no way the male was
going to hang around. As for the female, she just continued
on her way showing no concern at all and taking her time to
pick through the raspberries.
With their pathways through the forest closed, the road between
the two houses has become a main pathway for these birds.
Often there are fresh scats (droppings) along the road, giving
us an opportunity to see just what the birds are eating. Usually
the bulk of a cassowary dropping consists of large forest
fruits, with a fresh dropping resembling a small pyramid in
shape. Not the case for these cassowaries. Their droppings
are flat and sloppy. One dropping even appeared to have some
tomato plants sprouting. Lack of forest fruit is obviously
still an issue.
With this in mind we contacted the Queensland Parks and Wildlife
Service, to see what assistance was available for these birds.
After site inspection and health assessment of the birds by
QPWS, a feeding station was approved and feeding started in
June. Initial feeding called for a single bucket of chopped
fruit every two days. Now in the fourth week of feeding, we
have scaled down to a bucket every three days. All feeding
is done within the QPWS ‘Exit strategy for the post-Cyclone
Larry cassowary supplementary feeding program’.
Some interesting facts from the feeding program are:
Currently,50 feeding stations are established, Tully to Innisfail
Feeding stations supplementing the dietary intake of at least
Maximum feeding stations established was 61 in November 2006
1000 kg of fruit purchased each week, approximate cost $6000
Another 100 kg of fruit being donated by community members
Supplementary feeding will continue for the birds on our
property along with ongoing observations and monitoring by
QPWS staff and ourselves. Eventually such feeding will cease.
A couple of interesting plants were recently identified on
the property. In conjunction with a CSIRO project looking
at weeds and their growth after the cyclone, Andrew Ford from
Atherton CSIRO visited here in May.
Two plants were of major interest. The first being a large
vine that grows along the track up the hill was confirmed
as being a species which hasn’t been seen in 85 years!!! The
plant, a Rubiaceae called Uncaria cordata. At this
stage only this single vine has been seen on the property.
In addition, Andrew also identified another vine as Salacia
erythrocarpa, only the third record for Australia.
Except for two clumps of Giant Sensitive Weed, no weed problems
were identified on the property. These two clumps have since
been removed and destroyed.
Insect Valuations –
A New AIF Service
The AIF is now pleased to offer a new service – “Approved
to value Insecta for the Australian Government’s Cultural
Jewel Beetle - Cisseis suehasenpuschae
Brief taken from Twenty Five New Species of CISSEIS (SENSU
STRICTO) and Two New Synonyms (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE: AGRILINAE)
by S. Barker. Dpt of Entomology, South Australian Museum,
The genus Cisseis Gory & Laporte (1839) has not been
revised since Carter (1923) gave a synonymy and described
new species. Since then many more specimens have become available,
mainly through the activities of amateur collectors. Much
of this material has bee acquired by ANIC and is available
for scientific study.
Cisseis suehasenpuschae sp. nov.
Holotype: m, ‘Garradunga’ Innisfail Qld, 27.ii.1990, J. Hasenpusch,
Allotype: F, ‘Garradunga’ Innisfail Qld, 2.i.1993, J. Hasenpusch,
Paratypes: Qld: F, Polly Creek, ‘Garradunga’, Innisfail, 2.
i.1993, J. Hasenpusch, MHSA; 6 FF, Polly Creek, ‘Garradunga’,
6-14.xii.2001, J. Hasenpusch, JHQA
|New Species cisseis suehasenpuschae
Size: Holotype 8.2 x 3.2 mm
Colour: head mostly green, coppery-red basally. Antennae
bronze with copper-red reflections. Pronotum dark blue, Scutellum
dark blue with coppery-red reflections. Elytra black. Ventral
surface and legs black.
Shape and sculpture: body convex in lateral profile.
Head punctured, flat, inter-antennal bridge 0.25 inter-ocular
width. Pronotum striolate, anterior margin projecting broadly,
basal margin sinuate, dorsal carina diverging from ventral
carina basally, more or less parallel to it, diverging just
before meeting anterior margin. Scutellum scutiform, unpunctured,
anterior margin convex. Elytra scutellate, laterally tapered
post-medially to rounded, sub-serrate apex. Ventral surface
faintly scutellate, with minute setae adpressed to surface
and pointing posteriorly. Legs: meta-tibial setigeris with
one section raised; tarsal claws with inner notch.
Size: range 9.0 x 3.4 – 9.8 x 3.8 mm.
Colour: head and antennae coppery-red. Pronotum, scutellum,
ventral surface and legs bronze.
Shape and sculpture: as in male.
Remarks There is no other described species of Cisseis
which is this shape.
Published: Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Aust.
(2006), 131 (2), 257-284
Stick Insect - Ctenamorpha gargantua [Gargantuan
Brief taken from ‘Studies on the Australian stick insect
genus Ctenamorpha Gray (Phasmida: Phasmatidae: Phasmatinae),
with the description of a new large species
Jack Hasenpusch & Paul D. Brock
Description: Male (holotype): Elongate, dark brown
insect with light blotches. Body length 189 mm. Abdomen: Remarkably
elongate, sparsely granulated. Wings: Forewings long, leaf-like,
with whitish margin. Hindwings brown, long, but only reaching
end of 5th abdominal segment. Legs: Very slender and elongate,
with series of small dentations, except fore tibiae. All femora
with pair of bold apical spines.
Notes on the female: Unfortunately not available fore
description, the only definite female of this species is from
photographs of a 300 mm specimen found in the Evelyn Tablelands,
north Queensland, 3,000 feet. The previous record for the
longest Australian phasmid was Acrophylla titan Macleay,
1826 (p to 270 mm). The overall length of A. titan at
c. 390 mm is dwarfed by C. gargantua at c. 525 mm,
based on a tape measure used on one photograph. In fact,
gargantua is only exceeded in body length by a new Phobaeticus
species (375 mm) and Phobaeticus kirbyi (328 mm),
both from Sabah.
Holotype: male, Mourilyan Harbour, north Queensland.
Distribution: So far found in rainforest in a small
part of northeast Queensland, where males are attracted to
light. Likely to be much more widespread.
Published: Zootaxa 1282. 7 August 2006
Millipede – Desmoxytoides hasenpuschorum Brief
taken from ‘Dirt-encrusted and dragon millipedes (Diplopoda:
Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) from Queensland, Australia
Robert Mesibov, Queens Vicotoria Museum and Art Gallery,
Holotype: Male: Mt Hosie, Kirrama Range, Queensland.
Description: Male/female approximate measurements:
length 10/12 mm, maximum vertical diameter 0.9/1.3 mm, maximum
width across paranota 1.3/1.6 mm. Well-coloured specimens
in alcohol dark chestnut brown above, grading to a very pale
yellow beneath. Distribution and habitat: Known from
16 sites in tropical rainforest from the Isley Hills southwest
of Cairns to the Kirrama Range inland from Cardwell in north
Queensland, an approximate linear range of 150 km and an elevation
range of 400-1100 m.
Published: Zootaxa 1354. 9 November 2006
DNA Barcoding Project
on Phasmids -
Professor Barbara Mantovani, Paul Brock and Jack Hasenpusch
are currently collaborating in starting a project for DNA
barcoding (Ratnasingham & Hebert, 2007) in Phasmidae. The
initial emphasis will be on the Australian fauna where there
are several taxonomic issues to be resolved. This hopefully
should add to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life aims
throught a molecular taxon diagnosis, but, the analysis will
also produce meaningful data concerning phylogeny at the genus
and species levels.
The following is a list of CBOL requirements for this project
1. Species name (although this can be interim)
2. Voucher data (catalogue number and institution storing)
3. Collection record (collectors, collection date and location
with GPS coordinates)
4. Identifier of the specimen
5. COI sequence of at least 500 bp.
6. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers used to generate
7. Trace files
This project involves a requirement to sequence 5 to 6 specimens
of each species (possibly even 5 to 6 specimens from different
localities in some cases, an example would be Extatasoma
tiaratum tiaratum from North Queensland, whose nymphs’
exhibit population differences); adults of both sexes will
be selected so that the identification is unequivocal. It
is the intention that voucher specimens will be preserved
dry, for the Australian project lodged in the Natural History
Museum, Londan and Australian depositories; a leg from each
specimen will be preserved in 100% alcohol for a wide molecular
analysis, cross-referenced to voucher specimens. Barbara Mantovani
will organize the DNA barcoding in Bologna, Italy. Hopefully,
other research groups from different parts of the world dealing
with the molecular approach will join her efforts.
Bug Files Cyclone Recovery Timeline – A personal observation
diary made at the AIF property. (Unless stated otherwise,
all insects listed were in excess of 100 specimens in any
one sighting, excluding butterflies but where numbers are
still extraordinarily high)
||Micro-insects (under 4mm)
Moths, Beetles, Weevils and Bugs
Beetles (larger than 4mm)
Rove And Ground beetles
||Vinegar And Fruit Flys
Congregations of day flying Alcidis metataurs
one species- chrlisochidae sp.
Early emergence of Cossidae and Hepialidae
||Herculse - Cosinocera
up to 7 speciments per night as light (all male)
Timber borers - Weevils
||Micro-insects (under 4mm)
Beetles - Longhorn; Weevils
Saturnids, Hawk And wood moths
Assassin and various shield bugs
||Stick insects, Mantids and
||Micro-insects (under 4mm)
Moths, Beetles, Weevils and Bugs
Birdwings, Ulysses, myriad of other species
Other than fruit feeders, larger than 4 mm
||Stick insects, Mantids and
Various native species
Birdwings and Ulysses
||Microinsects (under 4 mm)
Beetles, weevils and bugs
||Microinsects (under 4 mm)
Beetles, weevils and bugs
Go To The Images For This Newsletter
As you would have read by now, we are well on our way to
full recovery from cyclone Larry. Unfortunately though, our
first anticipated recovery date of Christmas 2006 was way
out, more likely date of Christmas 2007 and we will be back
in full operation. Not everything is all bad following the
While there is no argument to the level of devastation that
the property has been subjected to, it has however led to
the forest undergoing a dramatic change from the once dense
canopy-covered wet forest to a now open yet much lower level
of dense forest. In passing we have often made the joke that
we have a new research site to work! It will certainly be
interesting watching the recovery process of the forest in
the coming years. It will in fact be some years before the
property shows any sign of a real canopy cover developing.
With the amount of black wattle trees (a native, yet dominating
pioneer species which out- grows other rainforest species)
removed by the cyclone, the forest now has a chance to restructure
with more diverse rainforest species dominating once again.
More diverse flora means more diversity in insect species.
COPYRIGHT © Australian Insect Farm 2007
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